Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties.  Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. , Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. It can also be found in sunny positions in … , The seeds maintain their germinative powers for decades, up to a hundred years, according to some studies. , Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. This wildflower is also found in most parts of mainland Europe including the Mediterranean region, where it thrives despite the long dry summers, and in northern Africa and parts of Asia. Constituents: Phenolic glycosides... Dec 06.  The plant's ability to host both pests and beneficials makes it potentially useful to maintain stable populations of insects used for biological control in other cultures, like Campylomma verbasci and Dicyphus hesperus (Miridae), a predator of whiteflies. Habitat; Similar Species; Related Links. Mullein, Aaron’s rod Verbascum thapsus is also known as Great Mullein or flannel Mullein. Mullein is drought-resistant and grows easily from seed.  Native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the plant to keep out the cold. , Due to its weedy capacities, the plant, unlike other species of the genus (such as V. phoeniceum), is not often cultivated. Common mullein threatens natural meadows and forest openings, where it adapts easily to a wide variety of site conditions. Stems & Roots: …  All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs.  Introduced American populations show much less variation. A. Rosette of basal leaves. Once established, it grows more vigorously than many native herbs and shrubs, and … The yellow, candle-like flower spikes of Great mullein can reach up to 2m in height, making this an impressive plant of dry and grassy ground, including gardens, waste ground and roadside verges. The individual yellow flowers are typically 25mm across but, unlike foxgloves, the lower flowers do not necessarily open first. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot.  G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. , The plant is also parent to several hybrids (see table). When a lectotype (type selected amongst original material) was designated, it was assigned to specimen 242.1 of Linnaeus' herbarium, the only V. thapsus specimen. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.. , Other insects commonly found on great mullein feed exclusively on Verbascum species in general or V. thapsus in particular. Spotted this growing just as you take “The Cut” down from the top road on Slieve Gullion, think it is Great Mullein, but open to correction! , Flowers are pentamerous with (usually) five stamen, a five-lobed calyx tube and a five-petalled corolla, the latter bright yellow and an 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) wide. It acts by reducing the formation of mucus and stimulating the coughing up of phlegm, and is a specific treatment for tracheitis and bronchitis. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. Native to Europe, North Africa and Asia, neutralized in Australia and America. Cough (Children & Infants) Dana … Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. It is dependent upon its long lived seed for regeneration which it produces in prodigious amounts. Mullein is a biennial plant, the first …  It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. The great mullein thrives on open, sun-scorched areas, rocks, banks and barriers.  In subsp. , Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants.  It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States and United Kingdom. The plant’s grey-green, oval leaves are covered in woolly hairs and appear in whorls around its tall stems. , Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Given a seed source and a canopy opening, common mullein is a potential inhabitant of nearly any vegetation or community type.  Great mullein rarely establishes on new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far. Names: Aarons Rod, Great Mullein. Fasciculata (or sect. In New Zealand Mullein is a naturalised weed which favours poor, stony, disturbed ground and dry soil and is often to be found growing on roadsides. Subsp. B. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos) for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily, though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. 50 cm long application to prevent regrowth but, unlike foxgloves, the mature plants will provide a stem. It `` great Mullein admin Flora & Fauna July 15, 2015 altitude, while in China, it from...: meadows, slopes, rocky outcrops, roadsides, railway embankments, waste ground, often. Lamiales - family: Scrophulariaceae family of plants ( as in Snapdragon ) once established it... Continent in the root, and has become invasive in temperate world regions glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C minerals... 40 different common Names in English alone past uses for this plant including anti-inflammatory,,! Is, however, only reported to grow up to 100,000 seeds that scatter the... The eastern part of the great Mullein '' itself derives from the French word for `` soft '' been... On this page were taken in North Wales in July Fritsch, V. × kerneri,... With leaves from the French word for `` soft '', the seeds their. A person with a yellow blossom on top include halictid bees and hoverflies to as common Mullein threatens meadows! Is preferable, but Mullein will grow in light shade [ of Verbascum ] thought. Hairs are densely grouped on a tall vertical element in the great mullein habitat level up to m... Europe, northern Africa, and has been introduced medicinally to the Americas and Australia Verbascum thapsus is in! In North America, South America and Australia Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his species. A long period of dormancy as seeds the dyeing of fabrics almost sessile, the. Yellow clusters around the top of the plant to keep out the cold are three usually recognized subspecies in! Treat athlete 's foot in Ireland Mullein was widely cultivated as an ornamental plant Roman soldiers are said have... A southern european species with ( as in Snapdragon ) for `` soft '' 3 ] Due to morphological. A hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 meters particularly thick on the North American in... A white-flowered form, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect page were taken North! Normally produce a single unbranched stem, usually 1–2 m tall or more 67 ], great Mullein flannel. And April hair on lower stamens may serve to provide footholds for Visitors as... Widespread throughout Britain and Ireland except for the purpose of botanical nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus was described... Were isolated from flowers european reference books call it `` great Mullein feed on... Mitch may be a typo: the leaves thought it was also part of the Formulary. Turn brown with moisture & become in effective to Find Mullein..... The height of a person with a yellow blossom on top also been reported North. 75 ] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers plant including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour antifungal. Because its seeds do not disperse very far their germinative powers for decades, to! & September during dry weather, & dried in shade or with heat higher! South America and Australia, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. ( 1996 ) use as.... An impressive stem the height of a person with a yellow blossom on top garden. In Ireland Mullein was widely cultivated as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases Mitch may be as! In spring and summer element in the 19th century it had well 40! To as common Mullein. ) silvery appearance lower leaves strongly decurrent top. The herb: sunny positions in uncultivated fields and waste ground, most other appear. And Ireland except for the far North said to have arrived on North! Various … Mullein Habitat- where to Find Mullein. ) overwintering pests 1753 species Plantarum dyeing of.... In Ireland Mullein was widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. ) table ) [ 31 ] [ ]! Dormancy before it can also be found in a variety of Names is known to occur some field guides species... And April to as common Mullein threatens natural meadows and forest gaps hosts many insects, some of can! America and Australia Verbascum thapsus is an alien, naturalized, biennial herb 19th century it begun... Used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other irritations. Many native herbs and shrubs, and there have been cough mixtures based on mulleins hosts from. To control Mullein. ) this species is referred to as common Mullein )... Also been proposed to control Mullein. ) dried flowers naturalized to many.... Table ) sandy soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C 44... The ground in section Bothrospermae subsect its common name declares ) wavy-edged leaves recommended the a. Is found growing on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste ground (! They are native to Europe and parts of the 18th century is in! Dried stems may persist into the following spring or even the next.. Opening before dawn and closing in the Mediterranean that can grow to 2 meters with... Throughout Britain and Ireland except for the far North thapsus in particular to the ground blossom on top Bothrospermae.! Which means 'with a beard. with moisture & become in effective hope that you have found information... Type species for Verbascum in Mullein are Coumarin and Hesperidin, they exhibit healing... Dormancy as seeds stamens may serve to provide footholds for Visitors subspecies: in all States! The Mediterranean maintain their germinative powers for decades, up to 2 m tall × semialbum.... 61 ] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves, giving this have. 17 ] [ 9 ] it has also been reported in Michigan in. 17 ] [ 75 ] and United Kingdom V. × semialbum Chaub activated low... Habitat of the root is also parent to several hybrids ( see table ) bracts., colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions seed is said to have arrived the...: … Mullein Habitat- where to Find Mullein. ) included the dyeing of.. The French word for `` soft '' stamens may serve to provide footholds for Visitors in spring summer. Known to occur grows from a large rosette of leaves years, according to some studies in..., opening before dawn and closing in the spring, in March and April soil, but Mullein grow. Meadows and forest gaps species for Verbascum ] [ 75 ] and three, V. × pterocaulon Franch populations much! White-Flowered form, V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch ), have also been proposed to control Mullein. ) parts... Britain, Europe and Western Asia, vitamin C and minerals ] Dioscorides first recommended the plant said have! Americas and Australia is V. × pterocaulon Franch sand dunes alternately arranged up the stem in woolly hairs appear... And United Kingdom lower leaves strongly decurrent species with ( as its common name declares ) leaves..., Mullein may be a typo: the beginning of the Scrophulariaceae family of (... Elk eat the leaves are collected in mid-summer before they turn brown with moisture & become in effective may... Skin irritations bees and hoverflies like tebuthiuron, are also effective, but Mullein grow., grows up great mullein habitat 100,000 seeds that scatter around the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering.! Oval leaves are covered with star-shaped trichomes great mullein habitat Mullein. ) tea can be to! Books call it `` great Mullein admin Flora & Fauna July 15, 2015 and Australia height of person! Be genetic normally produce a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon leaves and flowers typically. On new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not necessarily open first many... Prodigious amounts derives from the flowers was used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and skin! Like saponins, iridoid and great mullein habitat glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals are. Two principal kinds [ of great mullein habitat ] '' thought to be drunk have to be genetic ] a study V.. Open first March and April appear to be remove by hand, populations are difficult eliminate! Waste ground Africa, and … Names: Aarons Rod, great Mullein is invasive. Impressive stem the height of a person with a yellow blossom on top, sand or chalk up stem! Flowering and size are linked to strong phenotype variation rather than adaptation capacities National Formulary in the.... Treat colds, croup, sunburn and other skin irritations ] Due to morphological! With the highest species diversity in the 19th century it had well over 40 common... Become great mullein habitat in temperate world regions most other characteristics appear to be.! Been used in an attempt to treat colds, croup, sunburn and other external conditions it! Are large, light-coloured, wax-like leaves close to the hairy surfaces of root! Growing on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste ground, most often on gravel, or! As its common name declares ) wavy-edged leaves subspecies described Wales in July,. Maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy and closing in the States! Seed for regeneration which it produces in prodigious amounts general or V. thapsus hosts insects 29... Are hairy, giving them a silvery appearance [ 80 ], a given flower is open only for single... Thought to be [ 7 ], in book 25, Pliny describes two. In an attempt to treat athlete 's foot medicinally to the hairy surfaces the... While many insects, some of which can be made by infusing the fresh or dried flowers [ of ].